Baltic Dental and Maxillofacial Journal
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June, 2008, Vol. 10, No. 2



Conventional and early loading of two-implant supported mandibular overdentures. A systematic review
Vygandas Rutkunas, Hiroshi Mizutani, Alina Puriene


Barx1, growth factors and apoptosis in facial tissue of children with clefts
Benita Krivicka-Uzkurele, Mara Pilmane, Ilze Akota

Creating three-dimensional tooth models from tomographic images
Isaac Newton Lima da Silva, Gustavo Frainer Barbosa, Rodrigo Borowski Grecco Soares, Maria Cecilia Gomes Beltrao, Ana Maria Spohr, Eduardo Golcalves Mota, Hugo Mitsuo Silva Oshima, Luiz Henrique Burnett Jr.

Relationship between mandibular cortical bone height and bone mineral density of lumbar spine
Estera Miliuniene, Vidmantas Alekna, Vytaute Peciuliene, Marija Tamulaitiene, Rasmute Maneliene

Caries experience in relation to oral hygiene, salivary cariogenic microflora, buffer capacity and secretion rate in 6-year olds and 12 year olds in Riga
Jekaterina Gudkina, Anda Brinkmane

© 2008 Stomatologija

Stomatologija 2008; 10 (2): 62-66 332 KB

Barx1, growth factors and apoptosis in facial tissue of children with clefts

Benita Krivicka-Uzkurele, Mara Pilmane, Ilze Akota


Objective. Clefts of lip and palate belong to the most common birth defects worldwide. Growth factors and genes play an important role in tissue growth, differentiation and induction and upregulation of growth factors, apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinases might be involved in pathogenesis of facial clefts. The aim of this study was investigation of palate tissue in children with unilateral cleft lip palate for detection of local tissue growth factors, barx1 and apoptosis.

Materials and methods.We investigated soft and hard palate tissue from 36 children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate from cleft area.14 children were in age before and primary dentition, but 22 children were in mixed dentition period. We examined the localization of barx1, FGFR1, NGFR, TGFβ, BMP2/4, MMP2, PGP 9,5 by immunohistochemistry. TUNEL method was performed for detection of apoptotic cells.

Results. Abundance of FGFR1 positive cells was seen almost in all cases. FGFR richly stained cells of soft and hard palate tissue. Abundance of NGFR positive cells was detected in basal epithelium, hair follicles, nerve fibers in wall of blood vessels and subepithelium, and was more often seen in children before mixed dentition. TGFβ has showed intensive expression in epithelium, cartilage and bone in both dentition ages. Chondrocytes, fibroblasts and macrophages expressed MMP2 predominant before mixed dentition. Regional expression of barx1 was observed in epithelium before the mixed dentition, while during mixed dentition gene appeared in hyaline cartilage. TUNEL discovered apoptosis in both dentition ages.

Conclusions. FGFR1 and TGFβ are main tissue stimulating growth factors in both dentition ages. Expression of barx1 appears in cleft lip palate affected structures mainly in mixed dentition ages. NGFR and neuropeptides-containing structures are mainly characteristic in cleft tissue before mixed dentition. Distribution of genes, GF and apoptosis seem to correlate rather with dentition age than to type of CLP.

Key words: barx1, growth factors, apoptosis, cleft lip and palate.

Received: 24 03 2008

Accepted for publishing: 21 06 2008

1Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradins University, Latvia

2Institute of Stomatology, Riga Stradins University, Latvia

Benita Krivicka-Uzkurele1 – PhD student, lecturer

Mara Pilmane1 – Dr. med., Dr. hab. med., Corresponding member of Latvian Academy of Science, Director of Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology

Ilze Akota2 – D.D.S., MSc (Oslo), Dr.Med., prof.

Address correspondence to Benita Krivicka - Uzkurele, Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradins University, 9 Kronvalda boulevard, Riga, Latvia, LV-1010.